What Is Psyllium??
Psyllium is a soluble fiber derived from the seeds of Plantago ovata, an herb mainly grown in India.
It's used as a dietary supplement and is usually found in the form of husk, granules, capsules or powder. However, it can also be obtained through fortified breakfast cereals and baked goods.
Psyllium husk is the main active ingredient in Metamucil, a fiber supplement often used to reduce constipation.Because of its excellent water solubility, psyllium can absorb water and become a thick, viscous compound that resists digestion in the small intestine.Its resistance to digestion allows it to help regulate high cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar levels. It can also aid weight management and relieve diarrhea and constipation.
Moreover, unlike some other potent sources of fiber, psyllium is well tolerated.
1. Psyllium Relieves Constipation
Psyllium is used as a bulk-forming laxative. It works by increasing stool size and therefore helps relieve constipation.
Initially, it works by binding to partially digested food that's passing from the stomach into the small intestine.
It then helps with the absorption of water, which increases the size and moisture of stools. The end product is bigger and more easily passable stools. One study found that psyllium had a greater effect than wheat bran on the moisture, total weight and texture of stools.
Another study showed that taking 5.1 grams twice a day for two weeks significantly increased the water content and weight of stools, as well as the total number of bowel movements, in 170 individuals with chronic constipation. 2. It May Help Treat Diarrhea
Psyllium has also been shown to relieve diarrhea. It does this by acting as a water-absorbing agent, which can increase stool thickness and slow down its passage through the colon. One study showed psyllium husk significantly decreased diarrhea in 30 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Another study treated eight people who had lactulose-induced diarrhea with 3.5 grams, three times daily. Doing so increased their stomach emptying time from 69 to 87 minutes, which meant fewer bowel movements. So psyllium can both prevent constipation and reduce diarrhea, effectively helping to normalize your bowel movements if you are having problems.
3. It Can Lower Blood Sugar Levels
Fiber supplementation has been shown to control glycemic response to a meal and reduce insulin and blood sugar levels. This is particularly the case with water-soluble fibers like psyllium . In fact, psyllium works better than other fibers like bran. This is because its gel-forming fibers can slow down the digestion of food, which helps regulate blood sugar levels. One study treated 56 diabetic men with 5.1 grams of psyllium twice per day for eight weeks. It reduced their daily blood sugar levels by 11%. In another study in people with type 2 diabetes, a higher daily dose (five grams consumed three times per day) for six weeks resulted in a 29% reduction in blood sugar levels within the first two weeks. Because psyllium is able to slow down the digestion of food, it's recommended to take it with food, rather than on its own, so it has a greater effect on your blood sugar levels. It seems that a daily dose of at least 10.2 grams can promote lower blood sugar levels.
It May Boost Satiety and Aid Weight Loss
Scales, a Fork, a Knife and a Measuring Tape Fibers like psyllium that form viscous compounds can help control appetite and aid weight loss. One study had 12 healthy participants consume 10.8 grams of psyllium immediately before a meal. They experienced significantly delayed stomach emptying from the third hour after the meal and prolonged sensations of satiety six hours after the meal. Another study explored the effects of two, 20-gram doses in 17 healthy participants. One dose was consumed three hours before a meal, while the other dose was consumed immediately before a meal. The results indicated increased feelings of fullness one hour after the meal and reduced total fat intake during the day, compared to the placebo. However, studies investigating a direct relationship between psyllium and weight loss seem to show mixed results. One study found that 16 weeks of a calorie-restricted diet paired with three grams of psyllium either twice or three times daily resulted in an average weight loss of 9.9 pounds (4.52 kg) and 10.12 pounds (4.60 kg), respectively. Furthermore, another study showed that psyllium supplementation on its own, as well as paired with a fiber-rich diet, resulted in a significant reduction of weight, body mass index and percentage of body fat. In contrast, other studies did not report significant effects on body weight loss.
5. It Can Also Lower Cholesterol Levels Psyllium is able to bind to fat and bile acids, which promotes their excretion from your body. In the process of replacing these lost bile acids, the liver uses cholesterol to produce more. As a result, blood cholesterol levels decrease. One study reported an increase in bile acid synthesis and lowered LDL ("bad") cholesterol in 20 individuals treated with 15 grams of psyllium daily for 40 days. In another study, 47 healthy participants experienced a 6% reduction in LDL cholesterol after taking 6 grams each day for six weeks. Furthermore, psyllium can help increase HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. For instance, taking 5.1 grams twice a day for eight weeks resulted in a decrease in total and LDL cholesterol, as well as an increase in HDL levels in 49 patients with type 2 diabetes. Lastly, one study treated 125 type 2 diabetics with 5-gram doses of psyllium three times a day for six weeks. Participants experienced increases in HDL cholesterol up to 45.7%. Interestingly, a review of 21 studies reported that reductions in total and LDL cholesterol are dose dependent. This means greater results were observed with treatments of 20.4 grams of psyllium per day than 3 grams per day.
6. It Seems to Be Good for Your Heart
Adding water-soluble fibers like psyllium to your diet might reduce blood triglycerides, blood pressure and the risk of heart disease. One study confirmed that 5 grams of psyllium three times daily for six weeks reduced triglycerides by 26%, compared to the placebo. Moreover, in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes, triglyceride levels were significantly reduced after two months of treatment with psyllium fiber . Furthermore, a diet with an additional 12 grams of fiber from psyllium supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg in 36 people with high blood pressure. Lastly, another study in obese individuals showed that a 7-gram daily dose for 12 weeks led to a seven percent decrease in blood pressure in the first six weeks of treatment.